Wheat Production Technology for Nagaland নাগালেণ্ডৰ বাবে ঘেঁহু উৎপাদন প্ৰযুক্তি

~Anamika Sharma
~Ch Roben Singh

In the realm of food crops in the world, wheat (Triticum spp.) occupies the number one position. India is one of the principal wheat producing and consuming countries in the world. Its importance in Indian agriculture is second to only rice. Wheat flour based products, such as the chapatti, are part of the staple diet in most parts of India – particularly in northern India. Wheat straw is also used for feeding cattle. The Green Revolution, which was initiated in the country in the late 1960s, has had a very significant effect in increasing the yield of wheat. The output ratio of wheat to rice has steadily increased 1:3 to 4:5. Since 1991, the Ministry of Agriculture has been giving massive thrust to boost its output in the country. At present Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are the three major wheat producing states. They account for nearly 70 per cent of the total wheat produced in the country. Though Uttar Pradesh has the highest production In India, it lags behind Punjab and Haryana in terms of productivity. Better irrigation facilities in these states are responsible for higher yield. In Haryana, 98 per cent of the area under wheat is irrigated and in Punjab the ratio is 96 per cent. However, in Uttar Pradesh, only 88 per cent of the area under wheat is irrigated.
Area and Distribution in Nagaland -Wheat is another cereal crop of Nagaland growing in almost all the districts (except Kiphire and Longleng) of the state having cool winter and hot summer climate, irrespective of elevation and irrigation facilities. It is cultivated over an area of 3070 hectares with the production of 5600 Metric tonnes, with the productivity of 1.82Mt/ha.
(Source: Statistical Handbook of Nagaland 2015)
Wheat cultivation in non-traditional states like Nagaland is also being popularized by improving irrigation facilities and developing new varieties suitable for cultivation in north eastern plain zone. The suitable varieties recommended by Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, Haryana, for north eastern plain zone which include Nagaland also, are:
North eastern plain zone

table: —

Tips for increasing production
• Soil testing has to be done after harvesting of Kharif crop .i.e. paddy or maize. The soil sample from all the four corners of field at 30-40 cm soil depth; need to be collected and mixed. The soil sample weighing 500 gm needs to be tested at nearby Soil testing Laboratory. The soil test is being done to know the fertility status. The soil samples are being analysed at Soil testing Lab. Medziphema, and also at ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland at nominal fees
• The wheat seed are to be sown in Zero tillage for conservation of soil moisture and to reduce the cost of cultivation.
• Use quality seed of newly developed varieties of wheat suitable for the region/state.
• Fertiliser requirement for irrigated timely sown conditions is 120:60:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O/ha in NEPZ whereas for late sown it is 90:60:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O/ha. Full P and K with 1/3rd N are to be applied as basal and the rest 2/3rd N should be applied at first node stage at around 40-45 days after seeding. In general, all the fertiliser @ 90:30 kg N:P2O5/ha is applied at the time of sowing as basal under rainfed conditions.
• Seed rate of 100 kg/ha at 38 g/1000 seeds is required under irrigated timely sown conditions. For late sown and rain-fed conditions seed rate should be increased to 125 kg/ha. Seeding depth should be around 5±2 cm with a row spacing of 20-23 cm. For late sown wheat reduce the line spacing to 15-18 cm.
• Crown root initiation and heading stages are the most critical to moisture stress. Four to six irrigations are enough for wheat crop. Depending upon the water availability, these should be applied as per the requirement of the crop.
• Use clean wheat seed that is free from weed seeds, sow early and adopt closer row spacing for better weed control.
• Apply Pendimethalin @ 1000 g/ha at 0-3 days after sowing in 500-600 litres of water/ha as pre-emergence.
• For control of mixed weed population Sulfosulfuron @ 25.0 g/ha in 250-300 litres of water/ha can be sprayed at 30-35 days after seeding. In resistance free area, combination of 2, 4-D @ 500 g/ha and isoproturon @ 750 g /ha can also be used.
• For control grassy weeds only Clodinafop @ 60 g/ha or Fenoxaprop-ethyl @ 100 g/ha) in 250-300 litres of water/ha should be applied.
• If only broadleaved weeds are present then apply 2,4-D @ 500 g/ha or Metsulfuron methyl @ 4 g/ha in 250-300 litres of water/ha.
• Foliar blight and brown rust are the main crop health problems in this zone. For effective management of the diseases, cultivation of recommended varieties, like HD 2985, HI 1563, DBW 39, CBW 38, NW 1014, NW 2036, K 9107, HD 2733 (resistant to LB), DBW 14, HD 2888, K0307, DBW39 and HUW 468 should be encouraged.
• Loose smut control measures should be undertaken in view of the horizontal distribution of the seed material among the farmers and the use of the carry over seed. Seed treatment with a combination of the reduced dosage of the fungicide and T. viride is made. The bioagent fungus, apart from enhancing the efficacy of the fungicide, also leads to better germination, growth and protection against diseases through induced systemic resistance. For this purpose, seed treatment should be done with T. viride @ 4 g / Kg seed in combination with carboxin (Vitavax 75 WP) @ 1.25 g / Kg seed or tebuconazole (Raxil 2 DS) @ 1.0 g / Kg seed. Seed treatment with T. viride alone @ 4 g / Kg seed is also helpful as it reduces the rust severity.

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Writer – Dr Anamika Sharma, Ch Roben Singh are from Kolom Rabi-KVK Dimapur; ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland

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