Low Input Based Ghungroo Cross bred Pig Production কম খৰছত বৰ্ণ সংকৰ ঘুংগুৰো প্ৰজাতিৰ গাহৰিৰ উৎপাদন

~Dr. Sagarika Borah
~Dr. Tanmay Samajdar

Introduction:

The Pig occupies a very important status among the tribal population of the NE Hills States of India as the bulk and preferential diet for them is pork. Pig farming is considered as the most promising activity to contribute to the livelihood and nutritional security of the farmers in terms of animal protein. Though the 70% of the people in the region depend on agriculture as a main source of livelihood, almost every tribal household in NE region rear at least one or two pigs in his/her backyard. But still there is a huge gap between the demand and availability of pork. The main reason for insufficiency in pork production in the region is that the pigs reared by the farmers are mostly of nondescript type, whose productivity is relatively poor and hence the pork production is hardly adequate for the population. The state of low
productivity is again due to the lack of knowledge of the farmers about the scientific
management, housing and breeding of pigs. With a small investment on housing, proper feeding and sound disease control programme, farmers can profitably utilize their time and labour in this subsidiary occupation. A suitable pig breeds having the capacity to attain good body weight gain while fulfilling the preference of the local people is the need of the time.
In view of these facts and realizing the need for the development of pigs and their role for the economic upliftment of the farmers in the region, it is important to introduce improved pig varieties having the adaptability in agro climatic conditions of NE region.
Ghungroo and its crosses with Hampshire:
Ghungroo, an indigenous pig to Terai zone of West Bengal state of India is well known for its high prolificacy and adaptability to low input production system. It is also available in foot hills of Nepal adjoining Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It is black in colour with broad, flattened face and short, upwardly curved snout. Large, pendulous and heart shaped ears resembling those of elephant’s ears are very distinct for identification. Behaviourally, both the sexes are very much docile and easy to handle. Especially females show an excellent fecundity (mothering ability) which is an important trait in relation to the piglet survivability. In the breeding tract they are maintained under scavenging system and mainly act as insurance to the rain-fed agriculture. Ghungroo pig is now well adopted in agro-climatic conditions of Assam and Meghalaya and reported to be as climate resilient breed. The average litter size of Ghungroo pig is 9-12, individually weighs about 6-8 kg at weaning and
attains puberty at 7-9 months of age.
Ghungroo X Hampshire pigs
Low cost pig shed
ICAR- National Research Centre on Pig, Rani developed “RANI” variety by cross-breeding Ghungroo with Hampshire having 50% inheritance from both. Weight gain is more in Hampshire pigs, whereas litter size is large in Ghungroo. So, Ghungroo X Hampshire pigs have both these desired qualities. KVK, West Garo Hills conducted OFT on both Ghungroo and its crosses with Hampshire pigs and the findings indicated that both the varieties can perform better in terms of production potential
and adaptability even on existing low input rearing systems.
The managemental practices for low input production system for Ghungroo and its crosses are mentioned below.
Housing: Generally tribal farmers prefer open rearing system. Emphasis was given to construct low cost shed with locally available materials like bamboo, wood and thatch and rough cemented floor.
Feeding: Feeding can be done with locally available rice bran, broken rice, kitchen garbage, cooked vegetables, rice waste, brewery waste, colocasia (needs boiling), banana stem etc. Sweet potato can be incorporated upto 60% with broken rice (upto 20%), rice polish (upto 15%) together with some protein source (like fishmeal, bone meal, Ground nut cake etc.) and mineral mixture and vitamins. Tapioca (after peeling) and dried Moringa leaves also can be incorporated in pig’s ration for low cost feeding. Fruits (papaya, banana, melons etc) and vegetables (cabbage, pumpkin, guards etc.) damaged during transportation, storage and handling can be used as supplementary feeds by boiling /fresh and mixing with other feeds. Salt is also an essential element in pig’s ration. Fresh drinking water must be made available at all the times.
Health care: Deworming and vaccination should be done regularly. After weaning at 56 days first deworming should be done (with broad spectrum anthelmentics @ 5-7 mg per kg body weight) and then Pigs should be vaccinated against swine fever and FMD with the repetition at 6 months interval. Proper care should be taken for pregnant sow and new born piglets. Iron injection is given on 4th and 14th days of age of the piglets to prevent piglet anaemia. Unwanted male piglets are castrated at the age of 2-4 weeks. 
Economic output The productive and reproductive performances of Ghungroo and Ghungroo X Hampshire pigs in Garo Hills condition are given below-

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Writers Dr. Sagarika Borah from ICAR-KVK, West Garo Hills, Meghalaya and Dr. Tanmay Samajdar
from 2ICAR-KVK, Jirania, West Tripura

1 Comment

  1. Get great knowledge regarding pig production and unemployment problem should be solve in rural areas of north east if they take it as an professional means.

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